The White pieces are placed on the 1st and 2nd ranks and the Black pieces are placed on 7th and 8th ranks.
White Queens are placed on white squares. Black Queens are placed on black or colored squares.
Pawns always move straight ahead, never backwards. All other pieces may move forward or backward. Every pawn in it’s starting position has the possibility of moving one or two squares forward as long as no other piece is blocking the Pawn. When the Pawn is no longer in it’s starting position, the Pawn can move only one square forward on each turn. Pawns capture diagonally one square at a time to left or to the right.
Pawns capture one square diagonally ahead to the right or to the left.
When a Pawn reaches the end the board, it has no more moves. At this point, the Pawn must be traded in on the same move for either a Knight, Bishop, Rook or Queen. This is called a “Pawn promotion”. When a Pawn is promoted you may use pieces that have already been captured or borrow from another chess set.
White pawns start on the 2nd rank. Black pawns start on the 7th rank.
The Pawn is worth 1 point.
A Rook may move any number of squares, up and down on a file, side to side on a rank. A Rook cannot move up and then to the left in a single move. A change in direction requires two moves. Rooks cannot jump over other pieces.
In Castling the Rook jumps over the King. Castling is officially a move of the King.
The Rooks are located at the corners of the board. The white Rooks are located at a1 and h1. The black Rooks are located at a8 and h8. A Rook captures the way it moves. If any piece is in the same rank or file as the Rook, the Rook can capture it. The Rook has a value of 5 points.
The bishop has a value of 3 points.
The Bishop moves up and down on the diagonals. Bishops never change the color of the squares they move on. Bishops capture pieces on the squares they can move to. The initial start of the white bishop is c1 and f1. The initial set up of the black bishops is b8 and f8.
The Queen can move up and down, side to side and on the diagonal. The Queen captures the direction in which it moves. The Queen is worth 9 points. The initial set up position for the white Queen is d1. The black Queen starts on d8.
The Knight moves in the form of an “L”. It moves two squares in one direction, then moves one square to the side. The Knight does not capture the piece it jumps over. It captures the piece on the last square it moves to. The Knight has a value of 3 points. The initial start for the white Knights is b1 and g1. The initial set up for the black Knights is b8 and g8.
The King is the central figure in the chess game. The initial set up for the white King is e1. The initial set up for the black King is e8. The King is worth the entire game. If the King is lost the game is lost. The King moves one square at a time in any direction. When a king is attacked it is in check. It must get out of check on the very next move.